Denmark Case Study - mitigating subsoil compaction by modest wheelloads and inflation pressures
The Danish experiment involved identifying thresholds in wheel load and inflation pressure to prevent subsoil compaction and to secure soil ecosystem services. The aims of the to study were to: (i) test experimentally the use of tracks instead of tires as a technical solution to increase contact area and reduce the magnitude of contact stresses, (ii) compare effects of traffic on soil physical properties using tires or tracks, and (iii) evaluate a state-of-the-art method for risk assessment of soil compaction beneath tracks or tires at the European level.
|Slurry application trailer with wheel load ~6 Mg|
|tyre inflation pressure: 1 bar vs. 3 bar|
|approx. tyre-soil contact area: 0.67 m2 vs. 0.47 m2|
|Photos: Samson A/S|
|Compaction effects on subsoil (~49-72 cm) for a loamy soil trafficked with machinery for slurry application (compacted soil to the right)|
- We compared different traffic systems for slurry application at three locations
- Standard practice implies 6 Mg wheel load (REF). Mitigation treatment was 3 Mg wheel load (MIT)
- Key results for ~25-30 cm depth, average across three locations:
- MIT had ~39% higher volume soil pores >30 μm than REF
- MIT had ~15% lower penetration resistance than REF
- MIT had >1200% higher hydraulic conductivity than REF
- After-treatment effect of REF compared to MIT was 5.7% yield decrease
Comparing the use of machinery wheels or trackes to reduce contact stresses in the soil the following results were obtained:
- Maximum vertical stress was smaller beneath the rubber track than beneath the tire
- Stress distribution was highly uneven beneath the rubber track
- Low air permeability beneath the rubber track indicates high shear forces
- The results call for quantification of shear stresses under tires and tracks
Schjønning, P., van den Akker, J.J.H., Keller, T., Greve, M.H., Lamandé, M., Simojoki, A., Stettler, M., Arvidsson, J., Breuning-Madsen, H. 2015. Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Analysis and Risk Assessment for Soil Compaction—A European Perspective. In: Donald L. Sparks, Editor(s), Advances in Agronomy, Academic Press, 2015, Volume 133, Pages 183-237, ISSN 0065-2113, ISBN 9780128030523, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.agron.2015.06.001.
Schjønning, P., Lamandé, M., Munkholm, L.J., Lyngvig, H.S., Nielsen, J.A. 2016. Soil precompression stress, penetration resistance and crop yields in relation to differently-trafficked, temperate-region sandy loam soils. Soil and Tillage Research 163, 298–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.07.003
Schjønning, P., Lamandé, M., Crétin, V., Nielsen, J.A. 2017. Upper subsoil pore characteristics and functions as influenced by field traffic and freeze-thaw and dry-wet treatments. Soil Research 55, 234-244. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/SR16149
Obour, P.B., Schjønning, P., Peng, Y., Munkholm, L.J. 2016. Subsoil compaction assessed by visual evaluation and laboratory methods. Soil and Tillage Research (in press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.08.015
Schjønning, P., Koppelgaard, M. 2017. The Forchheimer approach for soil air permeability measurements. Soil Science Society of America Journal doi:10.2136/sssaj2017.02.0056,
(In cooperation with Padova University, Case Study on organic matter:
Piccoli, I., Schjønning, P., Lamandé, M., Furlan, L., Morari, F. 2017. Challenges of conservation agriculture practices on silty soils. Effects on soil pore and gas transport characteristics in North-eastern Italy. Soil & Tillage Research 172, 12-21.)
Schjønning, P., van den Akker, J.J., Keller, T., Greve, M.H., Lamandé, M., Simojoki, A., Stettler, M., Arvidsson, J. and Breuning-Madsen, H., 2015. Chapter Five-Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) Analysis and Risk Assessment for Soil Compaction—A European Perspective. Advances in Agronomy, 133, pp.183-237. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065211315001108
Lamandé, Mathieu, Per Schjønning, and Rodrigo Labouriau. "A Novel Method for Estimating Soil Precompression Stress from Uniaxial Confined Compression Tests." Soil Science Society of America Journal (2017). doi:10.2136/sssaj2016.09.0274
Lamandé, M., Munkholm, L.J., Nielsen, J.Å., Schjønning, P. 2015. Horizontal stresses below two agricultural vehicles. Proceedings, 20th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), September 2015, Nanjing, China.
Lamandé, M., Schjønning, P. 2015. Rubber tracks are still not good enough. Proceedings, 20th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), September 2015, Nanjing, China.
Nielsen, J.Å., Munkholm, L.J., Schjønning, P., Petersen, C. 2015. Does heavy traffic have long term implications for crop yields. Proceedings, 20th International Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization (ISTRO), September 2015, Nanjing, China.
Other scientific publications & reports
Schjønning, P., Greve, M.H., Noe, E. 2015. Case study soil compaction (Aarslev). In: Tsanis, I.K. & Daliakopoulos, N. (Eds) RECARE Case Study Descriptions, RECARE Project Report No. 04 (Deliverable D3.1), pp. 43-50.
Schjønning, P., Lamandé, M., Lassen, P. 2016. An introduction to Terranimo. Unpublished note at www.terranimo.dk
Schjønning, P., van den Akker, J.J.H., Keller, T., Greve, M.H., Lamandé, M., Simojoki, A., Stettler, M., Arvidsson, J., Breuning-Madsen, H., Noe, E., Mills, J. 2016. Fact sheet – Soil Compaction. Deliverable from project RECARE, May 2016.
Schjønning, P., van den Akker, J.J.H., Keller, T., Greve,M.H., Lamandé, M., Simojoki, A., Stettler, M., Arvidsson, J., Breuning-Madsen, H., 2015. Soil compaction. In: Chapter 6 of Stolte, et al. (Eds.), Report on Soil Threats to Soil Quality. EU-project RECARE.
For more information about this RECARE experiment, please contact Per Schjønning Per.Schjonning@agro.au.dk